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    Properties of different water resources components such as reservoirs, hydropower, irrigation and non-irrigation demand, environmental flow requirements, channel (natural and diversion) properties, inflow to the system, national and international water sharing agreements, and system operating policy. Data was collected/prepared based on the existing water management model (WRMM) in Alberta and Saskatchewan, using the water management model MODSIM. Other major sources of data involve: -Environment and Climate Change Canada's HYDAT and climate database (HYDAT) -Alberta Environment and Parks [AEP] (1998) South Saskatchewan River Basin historical weekly natural flows-1912 to 1995. Edmonton, AB -Alberta Utilities Commission (2010) Final Report for Alberta Utilities Commission - Update on Alberta’s Hydroelectric Energy Resources -TransAlta (2018) Plants in Operation. In: TransAlta Corp. https://www.transalta.com/facilities/plants-operation/. Accessed 4 Jan 2018 -Saskatchewan Water Security Agency [SWSA] (2012) Lake Diefenbaker Reservoir Operations: Context and Objectives -AEP (2007) Current and future water use in Alberta. Edmonton, AB -AEP (2018) Modified Operations Agreement with TransAlta. In: Alberta Environ. Park. Gov. Alberta. http://aep.alberta.ca/water/programs-and-services/flood-mitigation/flood-mitigation-projects/bow-river-basin.aspx. Accessed 21 Feb 2019 -Government of Alberta (2019) Alberta irrigation information. https://open.alberta.ca/publications/3295832. Accessed 10 Jan 2019 -Kulshreshtha S, Nagy C, Bogdan A (2012) Present and Future Water Demand in Selected Saskatchewan River Basins. Saskatchewan Watershed Agency, Regina, SK -Saskatchewan Irrigation Projects Association [SIPA] (2009) Irrigation Development in Saskatchewan – The Next Steps -SIPA (2018) Irrigation Development Areas & Districts. In: Saskatchewan Irrig. Proj. Assoc. Inc. http://www.irrigationsaskatchewan.com/SIPA/irrigation-development-areas-districts/. Accessed 5 Jan 2018 -AMEC Earth and Environmental Limited (AMEC 2009) South Saskatchewan River Basin in Alberta Water Supply Study. Lethbridge, AB -Clipperton GK, Koning CW, Locke AGH, et al (2003) Instream Flow Needs Determinations for the South Saskatchewan River Basin, Alberta, Canada -Halliday R, Faveri G (2009) The St. Mary and Milk rivers: the 1921 order revisited. Can Water Resour J 32:75–92 -Prairie Provinces Water Board [PPWB] (1969) Master Agreement on Apportionment. Regina, SK, Canada -Alberta Agriculture and Rural Development [AARD] (2014) Alberta’s irrigation – a strategy for the future. Lethbridge, AB Data file format: Microsoft Excel Worksheet (.xlsx) Data was prepared to develop water management models for different regions of the Saskatchewan River Basin, for IMPC work package B1: Developing a water resources model to simulate different operational policies of existing and future water infrastructure. See also: www.gwfnet.net/Metadata/Record/T-2020-11-25-L1qeuWkL3sIUato29uAV2Mbw

  • ERA5, is the climate reanalysis dataset from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which is substantially upgraded in comparison with ERA-Interim, with a spatial grid resolution of 0.25 degree (~31 km) and hourly temporal resolution, 137 vertical levels of the atmosphere, and increased amount of assimilated data using 4DVar data assimilation method. More details on ERA5 are available at https://confluence.ecmwf.int/display/CKB/ERA5+data+documentation. All ERA5 data were downloaded from the Copernicus Climate Change Service website (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/#!/search?text=ERA5&type=dataset), and is currently available on the GWF Cuizinart. The variables currently available are cloud cover (0-1), precipitation (mm), evaporation (mm), and runoff (mm) for the period of 2002-2017. Researchers interested in the data from the GWF Cuizinart can email Homa Kheyrollah Pour (University of Waterloo; h2kheyrollahpour@uwaterloo.ca)

  • The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model from NASA, 1 second (30 m) were downloaded from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory website (https://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp). ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model was developed jointly by the NASA and Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. This global product has a 30 m resolution. The region of interest (Great Lakes) is cropped and data converted into formats ASCII and NetCDF. Data are then made available to the project collaborators on a private GitHub. Researchers interested in data can email Juliane Mai (University of Waterloo; juliane.mai@uwaterloo.ca)

  • The metabolism of rainbow, greenside, and fantail darters will be measured using intermittent flow respirometry, to determine aerobic scope and hypoxia tolerance. Gill physiological changes will be measured using histological analyses and enzyme assays relating to energetics. The sites of collection are near the wastewater treatment plant in Waterloo, Ontario. Two upstream, non-effluent receiving sites, and two sites at different distances from the effluent release downstream are considered. Sampling will be done, at least once, during spring, summer, and fall seasons.

  • Field sampling consisted of collection of water, suspended sediments, and bottom sediment samples from Hamilton Harbour, and water samples from external sources over 2015 and 2016. Water samples were collected from four sites across Hamilton Harbour at 1m below the surface (epilimnion), and 1m above the sediment-water interface (hypolimnion). Final effluent samples were collected from the two wastewater treatment plants that discharge into Hamilton Harbour. Water samples were collected from the steel mill, intake and surface water discharge sites, as well as from two combined sewer overflow tanks. Suspended sediment samples were collected monthly from the same four sites across Hamilton Harbour as the water samples, using sediment traps. Sediment cores were collected in July and October 2016 from multiple sites across Hamilton Harbour using a box corer and subsampling into core tubes (7.5cm in diameter, 60cm long). Field samples were analysed for dissolved silicon, and total dissolved phosphorus (water samples), as well as reactive particulate silicon (suspended solids in water samples, suspended sediment samples, and bottom sediment samples). Sediment cores were also used in sediment core incubation experiments under varying oxygen and temperature conditions to determine the seasonal flux of reactive silicon from bottom sediments to the water column in Hamilton Harbour. This data was combined with water discharge data and reactive silicon concentration data from published literature and federal and provincial monitoring programs, to create a silicon mass balance model for the time period May to November 2016. Discharge and concentration data were processed in Excel to give mean monthly values. Reactive silicon fluxes were computed by multiplying discharge by concentration, or by mass balance. Internal cycling fluxes were computed from laboratory experiments, or by mass balance.

  • In order to build the sensor to detect nutrients in water, capillary microfluidic paper based devices (μPADs) is to be developed. It is a colorimetric detection. μPAD are pre-dropped by reagents that can react with specific nutrients in water to show color change. The color intensity has linear function with the nutrient concentration, then the nutrient concentration can be obtained by measuring the color intensity, by using a camera and image processing. To realize the automated real-time nutrients detection in water areas by using μPADs, there are three steps: 1) to automate sampling from water areas e.g., by using an auto-piptette, or a pump, 2) to automate the nutrients detection using μPADs. Note, that one piece of μPAD can only be used to measure one water sample. A pack of μPADs should be stored to detect a series of water samples; therefore, components should be integrated to automatically transport a μPAD from the storage container to the detection zone under the camera, and move the used μPAD from the detection zone to the waste container. 3) to communicate the measured data to a GSM modem equipped laptop, via SMS, so that researchers using the sensor can easily track in real-time the nutrients level remotely. A functionalized nylon filter has been developed to remove oil contaminants from water samples, in case the oil interferes with the nutrient detection. This developed nylon filter would be used before the water is detected by using the sensor.

  • These data were collected to explore the impact of Alnus alnobetula shrub growth on ecosystem function and to assess the spatial variability of that impact at the taiga-tundra ecotone. These metadata are associated with five specific data sets: 1) A suite of environmental variables (soil moisture, thaw depth, nutrient availability, snow depth, and organic matter depth) paired with vegetation community composition collected between summer 2015 and spring 2017. Data were taken from Alnus and Alnus-free habitat at ten sites with S-SE facing slopes. 2) Stem map and shrub size information paired with abiotic and biotic information from the first data set. These data were collected in the summers of 2015 and 2016. 3) Field observations of seed and seedling density measured in a grid around three Alnus patches. To collect seed density, seed traps were deployed over the winter of 2016-2017. Seedlings were counted in the summer of 2017. 4) Root collar samples from Alnus individuals across Trail Valley Creek collected for dendrochronological analysis. 5) Paired measures of frost table depth, soil moisture, repeat photos of bud break, shrub density, and snow-off date collected from the spring to fall of 2017. Data were taken from Alnus and Alnus-free habitat at seven sites. All data came from within 2km of Trail Valley Creek Research Station.

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    The Prairie Water Wetland Survey (PWWS) is a prairie–wide survey of pothole wetlands. It contributes to the Prairie Water’s Wetland theme informing on the level of pesticide concentrations in wetlands and potential risks in biological communities. All data were collected by field sampling in >300 wetlands. Monitoring campaigns were conducted during the spring and summer of 2018 and 2019. The dataset consists of a series of related spreadsheets that describe: (i) concentration of 178 pesticides (ii) concentration of nutrients, macro and microelements (iii) aquatic invertebrate abundance (for a subset of wetlands) (iv) waterfowl abundance (for a subset of wetlands) (v) physiochemical water parameters (vi) site locations (vii) site observations of surrounding wetland habitat and crops (viii) toxicity data for detected pesticides These datasets can be connected with a series of unique identifiers and will be connected with the “Water Chemistry” part of the Prairie Water Wetland Survey. See also: www.gwfnet.net/Metadata/Record/T-2020-11-30-e1P73BXqCkkuGwJHQUWW0MA

  • These data were collected to characterize and explain recent forest dynamics in a boreal peatland located at approximately 61.31oN, 121.29oW (near the Scotty Creek Research Station). In 2013 and 2014, every tree stem with a diameter at breast height (1.3 m) greater than 1 cm was measured, mapped, and identified to species in a 10 ha plot (800 m by 120 m) encompassing a mosaic of well-drained, densely forested “plateaus” (underlain by permafrost) and treeless or sparsely treed wetlands (permafrost-free). This resulted in coordinates and diameter measurements for more than 40,000 stems. In 2018, every stem was revisited to assess its status (alive or dead), and new stems that had reached the necessary size for inclusion since 2013/2014 were measured, mapped and identified to species. These data provided spatially explicit tree mortality and recruitment rates for the period 2014-2018. In addition, tree seedlings were tallied in 1-m2 quadrats at 20 m intervals throughout the plot in 2019, and tree growth rates over the past several decades (derived from annual ring width measurements) were quantified using micro core samples obtained from 120 representative individuals of each of the three dominant tree species in the plot. Finally, a suite of abiotic variables were measured at 20 m intervals throughout the plot, including frost table depth, soil organic layer thickness, fibric layer thickness, and the degree of peat humification (using the qualitative von Post scale).

  • The proposed study uses document analysis, policy Delphi surveys, and interviews as data collection methods to qualitatively analyze water governance in the western Lake Erie basin and identify drivers of eutrophication. Documents related to nutrient management in the western Lake Erie basin will be analyzed to understand the existing water governance system. Documents reviewed may include legislation, agreements, guidance documents, progress reports, assessments of progress, and action plans from the Canada, Ontario, U.S., and state governments. These documents will be collected using internet and library sources, and through requests to appropriate bodies when necessary. The document analysis will inform the development of questions for the policy Delphi surveys and the semi-structured interviews. The policy Delphi survey will consist of two rounds of surveys with experts to identify and understand the drivers of eutrophication in the western Lake Erie basin, and whether they are considered by the water governance system. Participants of the policy Delphi survey will be selected with purposive sampling, based on identifying experts on nutrient management and water governance in the western Lake Erie basin. The results of the policy Delphi surveys will inform the development of questions for the semi-structured interviews, as well as potential participants. The interviews will be an in-depth investigation of selected external drivers of eutrophication in the western Lake Erie basin, and how they are accounted for (or not) by the governance system, and to explore opportunities for innovation in the water governance system. Semi-structured interviews will be conducted with the individuals involved in or associated with water governance in the western Lake Erie basin, and individuals identified through the policy Delphi surveys as being, or associated with, an external driver of eutrophication in the western Lake Erie basin. Participants may include representatives from government agencies, non-governmental organizations, and academia.