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  • ERA5, is the climate reanalysis dataset from European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), which is substantially upgraded in comparison with ERA-Interim, with a spatial grid resolution of 0.25 degree (~31 km) and hourly temporal resolution, 137 vertical levels of the atmosphere, and increased amount of assimilated data using 4DVar data assimilation method. More details on ERA5 are available at https://confluence.ecmwf.int/display/CKB/ERA5+data+documentation. All ERA5 data were downloaded from the Copernicus Climate Change Service website (https://cds.climate.copernicus.eu/#!/search?text=ERA5&type=dataset), and is currently available on the GWF Cuizinart. The variables currently available are cloud cover (0-1), precipitation (mm), evaporation (mm), and runoff (mm) for the period of 2002-2017. Researchers interested in the data from the GWF Cuizinart can email Homa Kheyrollah Pour (University of Waterloo; h2kheyrollahpour@uwaterloo.ca)

  • The ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model from NASA, 1 second (30 m) were downloaded from National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Jet Propulsion Laboratory website (https://asterweb.jpl.nasa.gov/gdem.asp). ASTER Global Digital Elevation Model was developed jointly by the NASA and Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry. This global product has a 30 m resolution. The region of interest (Great Lakes) is cropped and data converted into formats ASCII and NetCDF. Data are then made available to the project collaborators on a private GitHub. Researchers interested in data can email Juliane Mai (University of Waterloo; juliane.mai@uwaterloo.ca)

  • The metabolism of rainbow, greenside, and fantail darters will be measured using intermittent flow respirometry, to determine aerobic scope and hypoxia tolerance. Gill physiological changes will be measured using histological analyses and enzyme assays relating to energetics. The sites of collection are near the wastewater treatment plant in Waterloo, Ontario. Two upstream, non-effluent receiving sites, and two sites at different distances from the effluent release downstream are considered. Sampling will be done, at least once, during spring, summer, and fall seasons.

  • Field sampling consisted of collection of water, suspended sediments, and bottom sediment samples from Hamilton Harbour, and water samples from external sources over 2015 and 2016. Water samples were collected from four sites across Hamilton Harbour at 1m below the surface (epilimnion), and 1m above the sediment-water interface (hypolimnion). Final effluent samples were collected from the two wastewater treatment plants that discharge into Hamilton Harbour. Water samples were collected from the steel mill, intake and surface water discharge sites, as well as from two combined sewer overflow tanks. Suspended sediment samples were collected monthly from the same four sites across Hamilton Harbour as the water samples, using sediment traps. Sediment cores were collected in July and October 2016 from multiple sites across Hamilton Harbour using a box corer and subsampling into core tubes (7.5cm in diameter, 60cm long). Field samples were analysed for dissolved silicon, and total dissolved phosphorus (water samples), as well as reactive particulate silicon (suspended solids in water samples, suspended sediment samples, and bottom sediment samples). Sediment cores were also used in sediment core incubation experiments under varying oxygen and temperature conditions to determine the seasonal flux of reactive silicon from bottom sediments to the water column in Hamilton Harbour. This data was combined with water discharge data and reactive silicon concentration data from published literature and federal and provincial monitoring programs, to create a silicon mass balance model for the time period May to November 2016. Discharge and concentration data were processed in Excel to give mean monthly values. Reactive silicon fluxes were computed by multiplying discharge by concentration, or by mass balance. Internal cycling fluxes were computed from laboratory experiments, or by mass balance.

  • Rainbow darter, a type of fish, from both upstream and downstream sites of the wastewater treatment plants, and will be aged using their ear bones (otoliths). From this, their population structure and growth can be determined to compare potential impacts of wastewater effluent. Condition factor will also be computed using their lengths and weights to determine which endpoint is more sensitive (condition factor or growth). A minimum of 25 male and 20 female rainbow darter are being caught from various sites across the in the Grand River using an electrofisher between August and September each year. Fish length, weight, gonad weight, liver weight were all measured in the field. Frozen fish samples are used to extract otoliths, and process them for age determination. See also: www.gwfnet.net/Metadata/Record/T-2020-05-28-Z16cVw1HvbkOLrHZ24TB5adA

  • The Soil Landscapes of Canada were downloaded from Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada website (http://sis.agr.gc.ca/cansis/nsdb/slc/v3.2/index.html). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada developed the Soil Landscapes of Canada (SLC) version 3.2 to provide information about the country's agricultural soils. For this project data was cropped to Great Lakes and then converted into the NetCDF format. Data are then made available to the project collaborators on a private GitHub. Researchers interested in finding more about the data can email Juliane Mai (University of Waterloo; juliane.mai@uwaterloo.ca)

  • To create this decision support tool, we undertook extensive literature review on how decision support systems/tools are developed and utilized related to large lake basin management. We identified key components of decision support framework and established process to develop a decision-support framework followed by a systematic tool. Furthermore, we held a workshop and stakeholder consultation to refine and further seek stakeholder inputs. To help steer the research outputs and outcomes, we are focusing on the co-creation of decision support tools to manage two major nutrient inputs: agricultural inputs and Combined Sewer Overflows (CSOs). It is imperative to obtain relevant stakeholders and decision-makers data, therefore, we sought memberships from the following working group (some already confirmed). 1. Successfully established membership in Conservation Halton as Board of Director for the year 2019-2022. This membership allows access to key Lake Ontario stakeholders and senior executives who are responsible for making decisions related to Lake Ontario. It is expected that valuable stakeholder ranking data (through Delphi methodology) will be obtained in the coming weeks. 2. Other groups that Highly Qualified Personnel has joined include Lake Erie Working Group, the Agriculture and Rural Affairs Advisory Committee, and the International Joint Commission. We continue to attend stakeholder meetings and obtained critical data that will form inputs to developing decision support framework. As an outcome of such meetings, additional stakeholders were identified, and interviews were conducted with farming communities. We established the use of Delphi method with a panel of stakeholders to formulate hypothesis related to agriculture and CSO and their relative ranking in the group setting. Currently, we are making headway progress in establishing a Driver–Pressure–State–Impact Response (DPSIR)-based decision-analysis framework at Lake Erie and Lake Ontario scale.

  • This study integrated United States and Canadian data to update and extend total phosphorus (TP) loads into and out of the St. Clair-Detroit River System for 1998-2016. The nutrient budgets for Lake St. Clair were calculated for each water year (October 1 to September 30) from 1998 to 2016. Daily flow into and out of the St. Clair River, Lake St. Clair, and the Detroit River were obtained from the US and Canadian river flow gauged stations. The annual TP loads into and out of the river-lake system were estimated from daily flow values and observations of TP concentration using a weighted regressions of time, discharge and season method. The Lake St. Clair annual TP mass balance was used to estimate annual TP retention as the difference between the amount of nutrients entering and leaving the lake.

  • Hydrologic, geomorphological, invertebrate samples, and water quality data was collected from three rivers in the Greater Toronto Area: Ganatsekiagon Creek (Durham), Wilket Creek (York), and Morningside Creek (Scarborough). In all three sites, continuous water level data has been recorded between June 2015 and August 2018 at intervals ranging from 1–5 minutes during the active field season (April–December), and 7–10 minutes during the winter season. Repeated topographical surveys of 150–200 m length reaches have also been conducted at various resolutions. Approximately 3–6 repeat surveys have been completed in each site comprising of planform geometry and bathymetric data. Finally, bedload sediment has been monitored using Radio Frequency Identification tracer stones. A total of 300 tracers, in three sizes, have been seeded in each site. Tracer positions were recorded after each major rainfall event during the active field season each year, resulting in a total of 10, 12, and 13 recoveries in Ganatsekiagon Creek, Wilket Creek, and Morningside Creek, respectively. Invertebrates were collected using the Travelling Kick and Sweep Method outlined in the Ontario Benthos Biomonitoring Network Protocol at each site. Invertebrate samples were collected 16 times between 2015-2018, typically once a month from May–September. Water quality (dissolved oxygen, pH, water temperature) was measured during each invertebrate sampling event, and water samples were collected to measure for nitrates, soluble reactive phosphates, chlorides, conductivity, turbidity, total suspended solids, and sulfates. All water quality tests were conducted in the Ecology Lab (EV1-134) at the University of Waterloo.

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    The data sets were used in studying the role of salt and soil pore on the freezing characteristic curve of frozen soils. In the laboratory, the soil moisture characteristic curve (SMC) of a silica sand was measured using a Hydraulic Property Analyzer (HYPROP). The soil freezing characteristic curve (SFC) of the same sand was measured using a series of column experiments with controlled total water content and pore-water salinity. In the field, data were collected from the St Denis National Wildlife Area (SDN), a mixed grassland cropped site in the Canadian prairies in Saskatchewan and the Boreal Ecosystem Research and Monitoring Sites (BERMS) Old Jack Pine (OJP) site in Saskatchewan, Canada. The data were used to validate the performance of three alternative SFC models (capillary, salt exclusion, and the combined capillary salt models). See also: https://gwfnet.net/Metadata/Record/T-2021-06-09-Q1WbMnjvQ10kW6aoMNUJrh6Q1